Black Panther Party (for Self-Defense) at English => English (The Britannica Concise) Of Explained:
U.S. black revolutionary party founded in 1966 by H. Newton and Bobby Seale (b.1936) in Oakland, Cal., to protect black residents from police brutality. It developed into a Marxist revolutionary group that called for the arming of blacks, their exemption from the draft, the release of all black prisoners, and payment of compensation to blacks for centuries of exploitation by white Americans. By the late 1960s it had over 2,000 members, with chapters in several major cities; an early spokesman was Eldridge Cleaver (1935-1998). Conflicts with police in the late 1960s and early 1970s involved shoot-outs in California, New York, and Chicago. Charges of police harassment led to congressional investigations. By the mid-1970s the group had lost support; it turned to providing neighborhood social services, and soon disbanded.