Bulgarian language at English => English (The Britannica Concise) Of Explained:
S. Slavic language spoken by about 9 million people in Bulgaria and enclaves in Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, and Turkey. Closely related is Macedonian, spoken by 2-2.5 million people in the Republic of Macedonia, adjacent parts of Albania and Greece, and enclaves elsewhere. Both languages differ from other major Slavic languages in their complete loss of a case system for nouns, use of a postposed definite article, and preservation and elaboration of the Common Slavic system of aorist, imperfect, and perfect tenses. Both are direct descendants of Old Church Slavic. Under Ottoman rule, literary production was solely in Church Slavic. The Bulgarian vernacular became a literary language only in the mid-19th cent.; it was codified on the basis of NE Bulgarian dialects in 1899. Though efforts to create a literary Macedonian were underway before the Balkan Wars (1912-13), it was not formally recognized as a distinct language until the declaration of a Macedonian Republic within nascent Communist Yugoslavia (1944).