Online Dictionary

Charles II Explained

Charles II at English => English (Longman) Of Explained:

King (1630-85) the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland who was the son of Charles I. He officially became king after his father's death in 1649, but he did not return to England to rule until the end of the English Civil War in 1660. He is sometimes called "the Merry Monarch"// restoration//

Charles II at English => English (The Britannica Concise) Of Explained:

King of Naples and ruler of several other European territories. He guarded Naples while his father, Charles I, launched a campaign to regain Sicily from the Aragonese. He was captured and imprisoned (1284-88); on being freed he promised to give up his claim to Sicily, but the pope released him from the vow, and he fought unsuccessfully for Sicily until 1302. He built alliances through the marriages of his children and extended his control over Piedmont, Provence, Hungary, Athens, and Albania.

King of France (843-77) and Holy Roman emperor (875-77). The son of the emperor Louis I, he fought his half brothers in a series of civil wars (829-43) until the Treaty of Verdun settled the terms of succession. Charles was granted the kingdom of the W. Franks, which he ruled despite the wavering loyalties of his vassals and the attacks of Norsemen, Bretons, and Germans. In 864 he won control of Aquitaine, and in 870 he gained W Lorraine. He was crowned emperor in 875 but died two years later in the midst of invasion and internal revolt.

King of Spain (1665-1700), the last monarch of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. Son of Philip IV and Maria Anna of Austria, he was slow-witted and became known as Charles the Mad. His reign opened with a 10-year regency under the queen mother. The first phase of his personal government was concerned with resistance to the French imperialism of Louis XIV, and the second was dominated by the succession problem, for it was clear that he would father no children. His death led to the War of the Spanish Succession.

King of Navarre (1349-87). He acquired Normandy from John II of France by threatening an English alliance. Arrested for his treachery in 1356, he escaped a year later and regained Normandy. He pursued shifting alliances in Spain in an effort to expand Navarrese power. Charles V voided his claims in France, and the discovery of his plot to poison the French king cost him all of Normandy except Cherbourg.

King of Great Britain and Ireland (1660-85). Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria, he supported his father in the English Civil Wars. After his father's execution, he invaded England in 1651 but was defeated at Worcester. He then spent years in exile until O. Cromwell died and conditions favored a return to the monarchy. His Declaration of Breda paved the way for him to be proclaimed king in May 1660 (see Restoration). He became known as "the Merry Monarch" for his lifting of Puritan restrictions on entertainment and his own love of pleasure; his best-known mistress was the actress N. Gwyn. Important events of his reign included the controversial Treaty of Dover and two wars with the Dutch (see Anglo-Dutch Wars). By the 1670s the miscarriages of his queen, Catherine of Braganza, had reduced hopes that he would have a legitimate heir (though he left at least 14 illegitimate offspring). He almost lost control of his government when hysteria arose over the so-called Popish Plot to replace him with his Roman Catholic brother James (the future James II). Charles kept his nerve, reestablished his political control, and eventually enjoyed a resurgence in loyalty. His political adaptability and acumen enabled him to steer his country through the struggle between Anglicans, Catholics, and dissenters that marked his reign.

Charles II at English => English (WordNet) Of Explained:

Charles II
n 1: as Charles II he was Holy Roman Emperor and as Charles I he
was king of France (1630-1685) [syn: {Charles I}, {Charles
the Bald}]
2: King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the
Restoration (1630-1685)