Ernst, Max at English => English (The Britannica Concise) Of Explained:
German-French painter and sculptor. He gave up studying philosophy and psychology at Bonn Univ. for painting. After serving in World War I, he became the leader of the Dada movement in Cologne (1919), working in collage and photomontage. In 1922 he settled in Paris and was among the founders of Surrealism. His work was imaginative and experimental; he pioneered the technique of frottage. After 1934 the irrational and whimsical imagery seen in his paintings appeared also in his sculpture. In 1941 he moved to New York, where he married P. Guggenheim and began collaborating with M. Duchamp. He returned to France in 1953 and continued to produce lyrical and abstract works.