complex variable at English => English (The Britannica Concise) Of Explained:
In mathematics, a variable that can take on the value of a complex number. In basic algebra, the variables x and y generally stand for values of real numbers. The algebra of complex numbers (complex analysis) uses the complex variable z to represent a number of the form . The modulus of z is its absolute value. A complex variable may be graphed as a vector from the origin to the point in a rectangular coordinate system, its modulus corresponding to the vector's length. Called an Argand diagram, this representation establishes a connection between complex analysis and vector analysis. See also Euler's formula.