Online Dictionary

grammar Explained

grammar at CMU American English spelling Of Explained:

['græmə]

grammar at English => English (English Etymology) Of Explained:

1176, gramarye, from O.Fr. grammaire "learning," especially Latin and philology, from L. grammatica, from Gk. grammatike tekhne "art of letters," with a sense of both philology and literature in the broadest sense, from gramma "letter," from stem of graphein "to draw or write." Restriction to "rules of language" is a post-classical development, but as this type of study was until 16c. limited to Latin, M.E. gramarye also came to mean "learning in general, knowledge peculiar to the learned classes" (c.1320), which included astrology and magic; hence the secondary meaning of "occult knowledge" (c.1470), which evolved in Scottish into glamour (q.v.). A grammar school (1387) was originally "a school in which the learned languages are grammatically taught" [Johnson, who also has grammaticaster "a mean verbal pedant"]. In U.S. (1860) the term was put to use in the graded system for "a school between primary and secondary, where English grammar is taught." ///

grammar at English => English (Longman) Of Explained:

W3S3 n [Date: 1300-1400; Language: Old French; Origin: gramaire, from Latin grammatica, from Greek grammatikos 'of letters', from gramma; GRAM]//
1 [U] the rules by which words change their forms and are combined into sentences, or the study or use of these rules: --Check your spelling and grammar.// --the rules of English grammar//
2 [C] a particular description of grammar or a book that describes grammar rules: --A dictionary lists the words, a grammar states the rules.//

grammar at English => English (The Britannica Concise) Of Explained:

Rules of a language governing its phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics; also, a written summary of such rules. The first Europeans to write grammar texts were the Greeks, notably the Alexandrians of the lst cent. BC. The Romans applied the Greek grammatical system to Latin. The works of the Latin grammarians Donatus (4th cent. AD) and Priscian (6th cent.) were widely used to teach grammar in medieval Europe. By 1700, grammars of 61 vernacular languages had been printed. These were mainly used for teaching and were intended to reform or standardize language. In the 19th-20th cent., linguists began studying languages to trace their evolution rather than to prescribe correct usage. Descriptive linguists (see F. Saussure) studied spoken language by collecting and analyzing sample sentences. Transformational grammarians (see N. Chomsky) examined the underlying structure of language (see generative grammar). The older approach to grammar as a body of rules needed to speak and write correctly is still the basis of primary and secondary teaching.

GRAMMAR at English => English (devils) Of Explained:

i)nei4 luan4internal disorder
civil strifenei4 xiong1wife's older brothernei4 xiang4introvertednei4 han2 ti3inclusion bodiesnei4 zai4(adj) in

grammar at English => English (Moby Thesaurus II) Of Explained:

83 Moby Thesaurus words for "grammar":
abecedarium, abecedary, alphabet, alphabet book, basics,
battledore, bowwow theory, casebook, choice of words,
comparative linguistics, composition, derivation,
descriptive linguistics, dialect, dialectology, diction,
dingdong theory, elements, etymology, exercise book, expression,
first principles, first steps, formulation, fundamentals,
glossematics, glossology, glottochronology, glottology, gradus,
graphemics, historical linguistics, hornbook, idiom, induction,
language, language study, lexicology, lexicostatistics,
linguistic geography, linguistic science, linguistics, locution,
manual, manual of instruction, mathematical linguistics,
morphology, morphophonemics, outlines, paleography, parlance,
philology, phonetics, phonology, phrase, phraseology, phrasing,
primer, principia, principles, psycholinguistics, reader, rhetoric,
rudiments, schoolbook, semantics, sociolinguistics, speech,
speller, spelling book, structuralism, syntactics, t, talk, text,
transformational linguistics, usage, use of words, usus loquendi,
verbiage, wordage, wording, workbook

grammar at English => English (English Thesaurus) Of Explained:

[N] (Beginning): {Introduction}: front, caption, entrance, entry, inlet, orifice, mouth, chops, lips, porch, portal, portico, door, gate, gateway, postern, wicket, threshold, vestibule, skirts, border, edge, first stage, first blush, first glance, first impression, first sight, rudiments, elements, outlines, grammar, alphabet, ABC.

[N] (Language): lexicology, philology, linguistics, grammar, literature, letters.

[N] (Grammar): grammar, syntax, punctuation, parts of speech, inflection, case, declension, conjugation.

grammar at English => English (Oxford Advanced Learners) Of Explained:

noun
1 [U] the rules in a language for changing the form of words and joining them into sentences:
the basic rules of grammar * English grammar
2 [U] a person's knowledge and use of a language:
His grammar is appalling. * bad grammar
3 [C] a book containing a description of the rules of a language:
a French grammar
4 [C] (linguistics) a particular theory that is intended to explain the rules of a language or of language in general:
a generative grammar

Grammar at English => English (Websters 1913) Of Explained:

Grammar \Gram"mar\, n. [OE. gramere, OF. gramaire, F. grammaire
Prob. fr. L. gramatica Gr ?, fem. of ? skilled in grammar,
fr. ? letter. See {Gramme}, {Graphic}, and cf. {Grammatical},
{Gramarye}.]
1. The science which treats of the principles of language;
the study of forms of speech, and their relations to one
another; the art concerned with the right use aud
application of the rules of a language, in speaking or
writing.

Note: The whole fabric of grammar rests upon the classifying
of words according to their function in the sentence.
--Bain.

2. The art of speaking or writing with correctness or
according to established usage; speech considered with
regard to the rules of a grammar.

The original bad grammar and bad spelling.
--Macaulay.

3. A treatise on the principles of language; a book
containing the principles and rules for correctness in
speaking or writing.

4. treatise on the elements or principles of any science; as,
a grammar of geography.

{Comparative grammar}, the science which determines the
relations of kindred languages by examining and comparing
their grammatical forms.

{Grammar school}.
(a) A school, usually endowed, in which Latin and Greek
grammar are taught, as also other studies preparatory
to colleges or universities; as, the famous Rugby
Grammar School. This use of the word is more common in
England than in the United States.

When any town shall increase to the number of a
hundred families or householders, they shall set
up a grammar school, the master thereof being
able to instruct youth so far as they may be
fitted for the University. --Mass.
Records
(1647).
(b) In the American system of graded common schools an
intermediate grade between the primary school and the
high school, in which the principles of English
grammar are taught.

Grammar \Gram"mar\, v. i.
To discourse according to the rules of grammar; to use
grammar. [Obs.] --Beau. & Fl.

grammar at English => English (Computer) Of Explained:

grammar

A formal definition of the syntactic structure of a language
(see {syntax}), normally given in terms of {production rule}s
which specify the order of constituents and their
sub-constituents in a {sentence} (a well-formed string in the
language). Each rule has a left-hand side symbol naming a
syntactic category (e.g. "noun-phrase" for a {natural
language} grammar) and a right-hand side which is a sequence
of zero or more symbols. Each symbol may be either a
{terminal symbol} or a non-terminal symbol. A terminal symbol
corresponds to one "{lexeme}" - a part of the sentence with
no internal syntactic structure (e.g. an identifier or an
operator in a computer language). A non-terminal symbol is
the left-hand side of some rule.

One rule is normally designated as the top-level rule which
gives the structure for a whole sentence.

A grammar can be used either to parse a sentence (see
{parser}) or to generate one. Parsing assigns a terminal
syntactic category to each input token and a non-terminal
category to each appropriate group of tokens, up to the level
of the whole sentence. Parsing is usually preceded by
{lexical analysis}. Generation starts from the top-level rule
and chooses one alternative production wherever there is a
choice.

See also {BNF}, {yacc}, {attribute grammar}, {grammar
analysis}.

grammar at English => English (WordNet) Of Explained:

grammar
n : studies of the formation of basic linguistic units

grammar at English (WD) Of Explained:

==English==

Alternative forms

* grammary

Etymology

From Inter: etyl » enm|en Inter: term » gramarye||lang=enm, Inter: term » gramery||lang=enm, from Inter: etyl » fro|en Inter: term » gramaire||lang=fro|classical learning, from Inter: etyl » la|en Inter: term » grammatica||lang=la, from Inter: etyl » grc|en Inter: term » γραμματική||lang=grc|tr=grammatike|skilled in writing, from Inter: term » γράμμα||lang=grc|tr=gramma|line of writing, from Inter: term » γράφω||lang=grc|tr=grapho|write, from Inter: etyl » ine-pro|en Inter: recons » gerebh-||to scratch|lang=ine-pro.

Pronunciation

* Inter: a » UK Inter: IPA » /ˈɡɹæm.ə(ɹ)/
  • Inter: audio » en-us-grammar.ogg|Audio (US)
  • Inter: rhymes » æmə(r)

    Noun

    Inter: en-noun » s|-

  • A system of rules and principles for speaking and writing a language.
    1. Inter: uncountable » linguistics The study of the internal structure of words (morphology) and the use of words in the construction of phrases and sentences (syntax).
    2. A book describing the rules of grammar of a language.
    3. Inter: computing theor » y A formal system specifying the syntax of a language.
    4. 2006, Patrick Blackburn · Johan Bos · Kristina Striegnitz, Learn Prolog Now!, §8.2
    5. : Because real lexicons are big and complex, from a software engineering perspective it is best to write simple grammars that have a simple, well-defined way, of pulling out the information they need from vast lexicons. That is, grammars should be thought of as separate entities which can access the information contained in lexicons. We can then use specialised mechanisms for efficiently storing the lexicon and retrieving data from it.
    6. Inter: computing theor » y A formal system defining a formal language
    7. The basic rules or principles of a field of knowledge or a particular skill.
    8. 2011, Inter: w » Javier Solana and Inter: w » Daniel Innerarity, Project Syndicate, The New Grammar of Power:
    9. : We must learn a new grammar of power in a world that is made up more of the common good – or the common bad – than of self-interest or national interest.
    10. Inter: British » archaic a textbook.
    11. Inter: U » K A grammar school.
    12. 2012, Graeme Paton, A green light for more grammars? (in The Daily Telegraph, 11 January 2012)

      Synonyms

      * Inter: sense » linguistics morpho-syntax Inter: qualifier » from the relationship between morphology and syntax

      Derived terms

      * grammar school

  • grammarchecker
  • grammarian

    Related terms

    * glamour

    Translations

    Inter: trans-top » rules for speaking and writing a language
  • Albanian: Inter: t- » sq|gramatikë|f
  • Amharic: Inter: t- » am|ሰዋሰው|sc=Ethi|tr=säwasäwə
  • Arabic: Inter: t- » ar|قواعد|p|tr=qawā3id, Inter: t- » ar|نحو|m|tr=naḥw
  • Aragonese: Inter: t- » an|gramatica|f
  • Armenian: Inter: t- » hy|քերականություն|tr=k’erakanut’yun
  • Asturian: Inter: t- » ast|gramática|f
  • Azeri: Inter: t- » az|qrammatika
  • Belarusian: Inter: t- » be|граматыка|f|tr=hramátyka|sc=Cyrl
  • Bengali: Inter: t+ » bn|ব্যাকরণ|tr=byākaraṇ|sc=Beng
  • Bulgarian: Inter: t+ » bg|граматика|f|tr=gramátika
  • Burmese: Inter: t+ » my|သဒ္ဒါ|tr=dhada|sc=Mymr
  • Catalan: Inter: t- » ca|gramàtica|f
  • Chinese:
  • : Mandarin: Inter: t- » cmn|語法|sc=Hani, Inter: t- » cmn|语法|tr=yǔfǎ|sc=Hani, Inter: t- » cmn|文法|tr=wénfǎ|sc=Hani
  • : Min Nan: Inter: t- » nan|文法|tr=bûn-hoat|sc=Hans
  • : Gan: Inter: tø » gan|文法|sc=Hans
  • Chuvash: Inter: tø » cv|грамматика|sc=Cyrl
  • Czech: Inter: t- » cs|mluvnice|f, Inter: t- » cs|gramatika|f
  • Danish: Inter: t+ » da|grammatik
  • Dutch: Inter: t+ » nl|spraakkunst|f, Inter: t+ » nl|grammatica|f
  • Esperanto: Inter: t- » eo|gramatiko
  • Faroese: Inter: t- » fo|mállæra|f
  • Finnish: Inter: t+ » fi|kielioppi
  • French: Inter: t+ » fr|grammaire|f
  • Galician: Inter: t- » gl|gramática|f
  • Georgian: Inter: t- » ka|გრამატიკა|tr=gramatika|sc=Geor
  • German: Inter: t+ » de|Grammatik|f
  • Greek: Inter: t+ » el|γραμματική|f|tr=grammatikí|sc=Grek
  • Greenlandic: Inter: t- » kl|oqaasilerissutit
  • Hebrew: Inter: t- » he|דקדוק|m|alt=דִּקְדּוּק|tr=dikduk
  • Hindi: Inter: t+ » hi|व्याकरण|m|tr=vyākaraṇ, Inter: t- » hi|ब्याकरण|m|tr=byākaraṇ
  • Hungarian: Inter: t+ » hu|nyelvtan
  • Icelandic: Inter: t+ » is|málfræði|f
  • Indonesian: Inter: t+ » id|tata bahasa
  • Interlingua: Inter: t- » ia|grammatica
  • Irish: Inter: t- » ga|gramadach|f
  • Italian: Inter: t+ » it|grammatica|f
  • Japanese: Inter: t+ » ja|文法|tr=ぶんぽう, bunpō
  • Jèrriais: Inter: tø » roa-jer|grammaithe|f
  • Kannada: Inter: t+ » kn|ವ್ಯಾಕರಣ|sc=Knda
  • Khmer: Inter: t+ » km|វេយ្យាករណ៍|tr=veiyyiekɑɑ|sc=Khmr
  • Korean: Inter: t+ » ko|문법|tr=munbeob|sc=Hang (Inter: t+ » ko|文法|sc=Hani)
  • Kurdish:
  • : Sorani: Inter: t- » ku|ڕێزمان|tr=RaezmAn|sc=ku-Arab

  • Inter: trans-mi » d
    • Ladino: Inter: tø » lad|gramatika
    • Lao: Inter: t+ » lo|ໄວຍະກອນ|tr=vai-nya-kǭn|sc=Laoo
    • Latvian: Inter: t- » lv|gramatika|f
    • Lithuanian: Inter: t+ » lt|gramatika|f
    • Inter: trreq » lb
    • Macedonian: Inter: t- » mk|граматика|f|tr=gramátika
    • Malay: Inter: t- » ms|tatabahasa
    • Malayalam: Inter: t+ » ml|വ്യാകരണം|sc=Mlym
    • Marathi: Inter: t- » mr|व्याकरण|n|sc=Deva
    • Mirandese: Inter: tø » mwl|gramática
    • Norwegian: Inter: t+ » no|grammatikk
    • Novial: Inter: tø » nov|gramatike
    • Occitan: Inter: t+ » oc|gramatica|f
    • Persian: Inter: t+ » fa|دستور زبان|tr=dastur-e zabân
    • Polish: Inter: t+ » pl|gramatyka|f
    • Portuguese: Inter: t+ » pt|gramática|f
    • Romanian: Inter: t- » ro|gramatică|f
    • Russian: Inter: t+ » ru|грамматика|f|tr=grammátika
    • Samogitian: Inter: tø » sgs|gramatėka|f
    • Sanskrit: Inter: t- » sa|व्याकरण|n|tr=vyākaraṇa
    • Scottish Gaelic: Inter: t- » gd|gràmar|m
    • Serbo-Croatian:
    • : Cyrillic: Inter: t- » sh|граматика|f, Inter: t- » sh|словница|f
    • : Roman: Inter: t- » sh|gramatika|f, Inter: t- » sh|slovnica|f
    • Sinhalese: Inter: t- » si|ව්‍යාකරණ|sc=Sinh
    • Slovak: Inter: t- » sk|gramatika|f
    • Slovene: Inter: t+ » sl|slovnica
    • Spanish: Inter: t+ » es|gramática|f
    • Swedish: Inter: t+ » sv|grammatik|c
    • Tagalog: Inter: t- » tl|balarila
    • Tajik: Inter: t+ » tg|дастури забон|sc=Cyrl
    • Tamil: Inter: t+ » ta|இலக்கணம்|tr=ilakkaṇam
    • Telugu: Inter: t+ » te|నామవాచకం
    • Thai: Inter: t+ » th|ไวยากรณ์|tr=wai-yaa-gon
    • Turkish: Inter: t+ » tr|gramer, Inter: t+ » tr|dil bilgisi
    • Ukrainian: Inter: t- » uk|граматика|f|tr=hramátyka|sc=Cyrl
    • Urdu: Inter: t- » ur|ویاکرن|m|tr=vyākaraṇ
    • Vietnamese: Inter: t+ » vi|ngữ pháp (Inter: t- » vi|語法|sc=Hani)
    • Volapük: Inter: t+ » vo|gramat
    • Welsh: Inter: t+ » cy|gramadeg
    • Yiddish: Inter: t- » yi|גראמאטיק|tr=gramatik
    • Zealandic: Inter: tø » zea|grammaotica


    Inter: trans-botto » m
    Inter: trans-top » study of internal structure and use of words
    • Albanian: Inter: t- » sq|gramatikë|f
    • Arabic: Inter: t- » ar|علم قواعد|m|tr=3ilm qawaa3id
    • Catalan: Inter: t- » ca|gramàtica
    • Finnish: Inter: t+ » fi|kielioppi
    • French: Inter: t+ » fr|grammaire|f
    • German: Inter: t+ » de|Grammatik|f, Inter: t+ » de|Grammatiktheorie|f
    • Greek: Inter: t+ » el|γραμματική|f|tr=grammatikí|sc=Grek
    • Interlingua: Inter: t- » ia|grammatica
    • Italian: Inter: t+ » it|grammatica|f
    • Japanese: Inter: t+ » ja|文法|tr=ぶんぽう, bunpō
    • Jèrriais: Inter: tø » roa-jer|grammaithe|f
    • Korean: Inter: t+ » ko|문법|tr=munbeop|sc=Hang, Inter: t- » ko|문법학|tr=munbeophak|sc=Hang
    • Macedonian: Inter: t- » mk|граматика|f|tr=gramátika


    Inter: trans-mi » d
  • Novial: Inter: tø » nov|gramatike
  • Persian: Inter: t+ » fa|دستور زبان
  • Polish: Inter: t+ » pl|gramatyka|f
  • Portuguese: Inter: t+ » pt|gramática|f
  • Russian: Inter: t+ » ru|грамматика|f|tr=grammátika
  • Scottish Gaelic: Inter: t- » gd|gràmar|m
  • Serbo-Croatian: Inter: t- » sh|gramatika|f|alt=gramàtika
  • Slovene: Inter: t+ » sl|slovnica
  • Spanish: Inter: t+ » es|gramática|f
  • Swedish: Inter: t+ » sv|grammatik|c
  • Tajik: Inter: t+ » tg|дастури забон|sc=Cyrl
  • Turkish: Inter: t+ » tr|gramer, Inter: t+ » tr|dil bilgisi

  • Inter: trans-botto » m
    Inter: trans-top » book describing grammar
    • Arabic: Inter: t- » ar|قواعد|p|tr=qawaa3id
    • Catalan: Inter: t- » ca|gramàtica
    • Finnish: Inter: t- » fi|kielioppikirja
    • French: Inter: t+ » fr|grammaire|f
    • German: Inter: t+ » de|Grammatik|f
    • Greek: Inter: t+ » el|γραμματική|f|tr=grammatikí|sc=Grek
    • Interlingua: Inter: t- » ia|grammatica
    • Italian: Inter: t+ » it|grammatica|f
    • Japanese: Inter: t- » ja|文法書|tr=ぶんぽうしょ, bunpōsho|sc=Jpan, Inter: t- » ja|文法書|tr=ぶんぽうしょ, bunpōsho
    • Jèrriais: Inter: tø » roa-jer|grammaithe|f


    Inter: trans-mi » d
  • Korean: Inter: t+ » ko|문법책|tr=munbeopchaek|sc=Hang
  • Macedonian: Inter: t- » mk|граматика|f|tr=gramátika
  • Manx: Inter: t- » gv|lioar ghrammeydys|f
  • Novial: Inter: tø » nov|gramatike
  • Portuguese: Inter: t+ » pt|gramática|f
  • Russian: Inter: t+ » ru|грамматика|f|tr=grammátika
  • Serbo-Croatian: Inter: t- » sh|gramatika|f|alt=gramàtika, Inter: t- » sh|slovnica|f|alt=slóvnica
  • Slovene: Inter: t+ » sl|slovnica
  • Swedish: Inter: t+ » sv|grammatik|c, Inter: t- » sv|grammatikbok|c, Inter: t- » sv|språklära|c
  • Turkish: Inter: t- » tr|gramer kitabı, Inter: t- » tr|dil bilgisi kitabı

  • Inter: trans-botto » m
    Inter: trans-top » in computing: formal system specifying the syntax of a language
    • Arabic: Inter: t- » ar|قواعد|p|tr=qawaa3id
    • Chinese:
    • : Mandarin: Inter: t- » cmn|語法|sc=Hani, Inter: t- » cmn|语法|tr=yǔfǎ|sc=Hani
    • Czech: Inter: t- » cs|gramatika|f
    • Finnish: Inter: t+ » fi|kielioppi
    • French: Inter: t+ » fr|grammaire|f
    • German: Inter: t+ » de|Grammatik|f
    • Greek: Inter: t+ » el|γραμματική|f|tr=grammatikí|sc=Grek
    • Japanese: Inter: t+ » ja|文法|tr=ぶんぽう, bunpō


    Inter: trans-mi » d
  • Jèrriais: Inter: tø » roa-jer|grammaithe|f
  • Macedonian: Inter: t- » mk|граматика|f|tr=gramátika
  • Novial: Inter: tø » nov|gramatike
  • Polish: Inter: t+ » pl|gramatyka|f
  • Portuguese: Inter: t+ » pt|gramática|f
  • Russian: Inter: t+ » ru|грамматика|f|tr=grammátika
  • Serbo-Croatian: Inter: t- » sh|gramatika|f|alt=gramàtika
  • Swedish: Inter: t+ » sv|grammatik|c

  • Inter: trans-botto » m

    Inter: checktrans-to » p
    • Inter: ttbc » eu: Inter: t- » eu|gramatika
    • Inter: ttbc » hi: Inter: t+ » hi|व्याकरण|sc=Deva
    • Inter: ttbc » id: Inter: t+ » id|tata bahasa


    Inter: trans-botto » m

    Verb

    Inter: en-ver » b
  • Inter: obsolete » intransitive To discourse according to the rules of grammar; to use grammar.
    1. : Inter: rfquotek » Beaumont and Flanders

      See also

      * Inter: pedi » a

  • Category: Appendix:Glossary of grammar -
  • Category: :Category:Grammar -

    External links

    * grammar at [http://septicscompanion.com The Septic's Companion: A British Slang Dictionary]

  • Manx

    Noun

    Inter: gv-noun » g=m
  • Inter: l » en|grammar

    Mutation

    Inter: gv mut cons » g|rammar

    Synonyms

    * Inter: l » gv|grammeydys

    Related terms

    * Inter: l » gv|grammeydagh
    • Inter: l » gv|neughrammeydoil


    Category: Category:gv:Grammar -
    Category: ang:grammar -
    Translation: ar » grammar
    Category: zh-min-nan:grammar -
    Translation: cy » grammar
    Translation: da » grammar
    Translation: et » grammar
    Translation: el » grammar
    Translation: eo » grammar
    Translation: eu » grammar
    Translation: fr » grammar
    Translation: ko » grammar
    Translation: io » grammar
    Translation: id » grammar
    Translation: zu » grammar
    Translation: it » grammar
    Translation: kn » grammar
    Translation: ku » grammar
    Translation: lo » grammar
    Translation: lt » grammar
    Translation: hu » grammar
    Translation: mg » grammar
    Translation: ml » grammar
    Translation: my » grammar
    Translation: nl » grammar
    Translation: no » grammar
    Translation: oc » grammar
    Translation: pl » grammar
    Translation: pt » grammar
    Translation: ru » grammar
    Translation: sq » grammar
    Category: simple:grammar -
    Translation: fi » grammar
    Translation: sv » grammar
    Translation: ta » grammar
    Translation: te » grammar
    Translation: tg » grammar
    Translation: tr » grammar
    Translation: vi » grammar
    Translation: zh » grammar